Bike designs using a drive shaft were tried at the turn of the century, but never caught on as the best form of power transmission bikes. I’m not sure why, because a lot of bikes were made with a drive shaft and bevel gears for a power train.
A Finnish company led by Tatu Lund has designed a beautiful drive shaft recumbent bike, shown below. It has disk brakes, a wonderful feature on a recumbent, fenders , a built in pack support, and rear suspension. As in all Finnish products, the design is a thing of beauty. Sells in the neighborhood of $3500.
The drive shaft goes inside the frame to the gear wheel, yet the rear wheel has suspension and moves up and down. Very impressive. The bottom bracket is a bit lower than the seat, so stopping and starting should be much easier than on my high race. Tatu says that the bike is designed for two demographics: those that are looking for increased speed, and those that are looking for increased comfort. Sounds like the same demographics that all recumbents appeal to. Mirage has 3 U.S. distributors, and if the bike rides as well as it looks, it should be a world beater!
Charles Mochet of France first set out to build a four wheel bicycle, because his wife (just a tad overprotective, are we?) thought that bikes of the day (the 1930s) were way too dangerous for her precious baby boy. So Charles made a little 4 wheeled car that his son could not fall off of. However, he found that the little car was very fast, and son George was leaving the other kids on their bikes in the dust. That observation started Charles on his next project. The first was to make more pedal cars, and there was a mini craze over pedal cars.
From the childs pedal car, Mochet went on to improve a recumbent bike design to a world speed record setting form.
Twist grip speed control started with the first motorcycle, a steam powered oddity made by Sylvester Roper in 1869. His motorcycle was controlled by a twist grip throttle. The twist grip for control of bicycle derailleurs was first popularized in the 1960s by the Sturmey-Archer company, famous for their internally geared hub shifters. Other makers followed with their own twist shifters, a notable one being the 1990 the Campagnolo twist-grip shifter below.
A strong rival to derailluers for gear changing on bicycle was the Sturmey Archer three speed hub. The SA Hub had internal gears, which were selected using a lever on the handle bars. They are reliable, sturdy, and trouble free.
The Sturmey Archer hub was designed in 1902 by a schoolmaster, Henry Sturmey, and an engineer, James Archer. Both of these men had designed earlier internally geared hubs, and were brought together by Frank Bowden, inventor of the Bowden cable in 1894, and owner of Raleigh Bicycles. Raleigh favored use of Sturmy Archer hubs, which left the French to develop and popularize the derailleur. The story of the development of the derailleur is told in the wonderful book “The Dancing Chain”, by Frank Berto and Daniel Rebour.
Tony Hadland has written a book on the Sturmey Archer Story that has the complete history of SA Hubs. As usual, Sheldon Brown of Harris Cyclery has detailed information about Sturmey Archer hubs, the various models, and repairing them.
Around the turn of the century there were a number of bicycle designs which did not use chains, but instead had a drive shaft with bevel gears. This bicycle is from 1891 and uses four bevel gears and a drive shaft for propulsion. This idea was later taken to motorcycles, such as the BMW shaft drive motorcycle some 50 years later.
My tricycle weighs 83 pounds, and, when loaded for a summer journey of several days, it is made to carry myself, 196 lbs, and an overcoat, spare clothes, a book, sketch book, colors, etc to the extent in all of 221 lbs. I have always a comfortable seat to sketch in, or to rest in when I need, with great ease in driving. Although I can put it along on level ground at the rate of 8 or 9 mph, I seldom cover more than 6 in traveling/ but the road must be very bad to reduce me to 4 mph.
To remove a “current generation” of Shimano’s Hyperglide cassette from the freehub of a rear wheel you will need two rather specialized tools besides a 12″ adjustable wrench. First, the lock-ring that holds the cassette on the freehub has 12 internal splines, as can be seen in the first picture.
Park Tool’s #FR-1 or #FR-5G will fit this lock-ring. FR-5G has an alignment pin that makes the job of loosening the lock-ring a lot easier. Without the pin, the tool is hard to hold in place while also holding the cassette with a chain-whip. Using a quick release skewer lightly snugged up will also hold the tool in place. In the second picture you can see FR-1 on the left and FR-5G on the right. The third picture shows FR-5G in place for loosening the lock-ring.
The next tool you will need is some kind of device to hold the cassette from rotating backwards (counter-clockwise) as you loosen the lock-ring. Large ChannelLock-type pliers will not do it as they tend to bend or nick the teeth of the cogs of the cassette. An old piece of chain used with a pair of Vice-Grips will hold the cassette well enough for loosening. The best way to hold the cassette, however, is to use Park Tool’s SR-1 chain-whip, or equivalent, positioned as seen in picture four, to the left.
A 12″ adjustable wrench, a 1″ open-end or box wrench, or even a 26mm open-end or box wrench will turn the FR-5G tool to loosen the lock-ring, as seen in the fourth picture.
Holding the chain-whip, turn the adjustable wrench counter-clockwise to loosen the lock-ring. The lock-ring and the smallest cog of the cassette have serrations on their mating faces to help prevent loosening while riding, so you will hear some clicking as you loosen the ring. Once it is loose, remove the chain-whip and wrench and also the ring. It should look like picture five.
Now, simply lift the cassette off of the freehub, but be careful to hold onto the two smallest cogs of the cassette because they will not be firmly attached as the rest may be. Take special care to notice how they fit onto the cassette for replacement later. Notice how their flanges face, and how they also have a larger spline tooth and smaller groove like the rest of the cogs on the cassette. These must all line up.
Most cassettes are held together by a single screw that keeps all but the two smallest cogs together for easier handling and assembly. Some cassettes have all but those two smallest cogs rivetted to an aluminum spider, too! But, some cassettes have all of their cogs and spacers simply assembled onto the freehub’s splines one-at-a-time. Be very careful about keeping everything in order and be sure you know exactly how all of the spacers and cogs fit onto the freehub. Each spacer has two small pins that MUST fit into the correct holes of the cogs. If they don’t, they will hold two cogs just slightly too far apart and that will ruin the alignment that allows for index shifting. If you are not absolutely sure you know how all of the spacers and cogs fit together, then if they all feel loose as you try to lift the cassette off the freehub, stop and take it all to your local bike shop for servicing.
The freehub with the cassette removed should now look like picture six.
The majority of freehubs are made from hardened steel. Some road freehubs were made with aluminum spline shells to help save weight. Once the cassette is finally removed, these softer splines will usually show where the cogs have dug into the edge of the spline over time and under heavy loading. It will also make it hard to remove the cassette on these freehubs.
To replace the cassette on the freehub, just line up the large spline tooth of the cogs with the large spline groove in the hub’s shell and slide the cassette onto the hub. Be careful to get the flange of each of the last two cogs facing the wheel. Screw the lockring on and tighten it with the special tool and wrench. It doesn’t need to be “stand-on-it” tight. Park Tools lists it as needing about 260-434 in/lb. (about 21.7-36.2 ft/lb). Since the freehub’s ratchet will stop the cassette from turning clockwise as you tighten the lock-ring, you do not need the chain-whip for installation of the cassette.
Not to leave the 2 wheelers out of the collection, here are some chain lines of two wheel recumbents.
Says Bruce: Stephen (tennbent) and I wanted to eliminate the inherent problems on his Optima Baron that also exist with the chainlines on a lot of mid and low racers. The picture above shows the chain crossover between idlers.
The picture above shows the revised chainline, with crossover issue resolved. First, we wanted to clear the front tire/fork, and also to eliminate any chain cross-overs. We also did some other minor chainline mods to clean up the line. I won’t go into all of the details of HOW we did this, but the pics show the results. And, it works quite well. Stephen says it quieted the whole chainline a lot.
Admittedly, the change added another small bend in the power chain line, which technically adds pedal effort, but Stephen says he can’t feel any extra effort, and most folks won’t either. Maybe Lance Armstrong could feel it. The extra bend is about what most trikes experience in chain line bend. Bruce
The picture above shows one wheelbase-version of the Musashi, with chain crossover problems.
Another version of the Musashi, with chain crossover issues.
Chain lines on trikes seem to generate a lot of experimenting and novel approaches. The pictures below show a bunch of different approaches to making a chainline quiet and efficient, on all Catrikes I believe.
Hopefully the creators of these setups or those who have tried similar ones will comment on the likely quietness and efficiency of each of these setups. Send additional pics of chainlines of any type of bent, and I’ll post them.
Above: Bruce’s Speed. Bruce says this is the cleanest, quietest, most efficient setup he has used.
Above: Dr. Duk’s version of chain tubes. Says Bruce: “…shows the easiest, and best way to give the tubes the loosest float possible, and this is a good thing.”
Above: Flying Tiger’s version
Bruce’s orange Catrike. “This is the overly complex, and expensive, chainline that I tried on two of my Speeds. I had four goals for it: lift the return chain higher off the ground, push the power chain under the front axle, raise everything above the bottom of the main frame tube, and eliminate all tubes. It did all four quite well, but at the expense of expense and more noise. Both trikes are back to a single tube on the return chain, with just some tape on top of the axle to protect against the power chain slap. ”
another trike set up, by Jerry Mckee.
Bruce: “Jerry McKee’s is close, but the idlers should have been placed behind the front axle. Also, by pushing the power chain under the front axle, you alter the angle of the power chain to the der post and der. This can hurt the shifting, and at the least, it limits how small you can go on the small ring. I know this because on my Tony Trike, I couldn’t go smaller than a 30 tooth ring when I did this arrangement.”
Above: John Rooker’s Expedition. Says John: “I have the same setup on my present Trail. This is simple, effective, quiet and costs almost nothing once you’ve purchased the return side idler.”
Utah Trikes photo, on an Expedition. “…just insanely wrong! All of the Expo’s cherished ground clearance is lost with that arrangement. That idler should have been placed in front of the axle, as Pat Franz has designed those clamp-ons to be placed.”
Bruce’s opinion – “Photofinish’s setup is a good example of a common myth about chainlines, that running the return chain in a straight line gives less drag. Wrong! It increases the drag compared to a slightly curved tube run underneath. If you let the chain hang naturaly with no tube, it has no frictional drag, so what better way to “tube” it than to run it through a tube that follows it’s natural curve as much as possible. Ideally, if the tube’s curve matches the chain’s curve, the tube will not be supporting the chain at all, and therefore will not induce any drag. But, if you lift the chain up and run it through a straight tube above where it wants to hang naturally, the tube is then carrying all of the chain’s weight, and that creates a LOT of drag, not to mention more noise. It may look cool, but it will cost you in pedal effort and extra noise. If you look at the first pic of my Holey Spokes, the tube has been curved to match the natural droop of the return chain as close as possible. With generous flares, it is almost silent all the time.”
Bruce’s Opinion – “pretty close to stock and about the best you can get. Quiet and efficient!”
Chain tube attachment by HP – Velotechnik, sold at Hostel Shoppe. A long spoke held under the idler bolt and tied to the tube as far along the tube as possible will allow the tube to move around as much as it needs to in reaction to chain movement, with very little restriction. The longer the spoke, the more flex is would have.
Terracycle floating tube holder. They also sell flared sections of chain tube. Although the floating tube holder is cool, the bike has chain routing and crossover issues. Without tubes the chain would rub itself, causing it to “snag” on itself as the pin ends catch each other. Also, the chain runs along the side of the fork, rubbing it almost constantly. Even with a tube, the tube rubs the fork. It also limits the turn radius, because the tire will rub the chain with very little turn input. Bruce
PhattKat’s setup, from his blog. Note the attachment of both the power side tube and the return side tube to the idler. These attachments look solid. Also full coverage of the chains, as shown below. How does one keep a chain so clean!!?? My trike is a mess by comparison.
Specifically, Joules is a robotic stoker for your tandem bike, when you are riding solo on a tandem.
This project definitely has a steam punk flair, and combines some art, whimsy, and a good deal of engineering. Joules was built by engineer Carl Morgan with his son, a former pro cycling racer. The web page with more information on Joules is here.